Overview of the School Progress Index

Maryland's New Accountability Structure

Maryland’s new Accountability Program is comprised of three components, (1) School Progress, (2) School Progress Index (SPI), and (3) Differentiated Recognition.

The new Maryland School Progress Index is based on high expectations and multiple measures that include student achievement data in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science; growth data in English/Language Arts and Mathematics; gaps, based on the gap score between highest-achieving and lowest-achieving subgroup in mathematics, reading, science, cohort graduation and cohort dropout rates. Maryland’s Progress Index will differentiate schools into one of five strands which determine the district and State support schools receive. The State affords top-performing schools greater flexibility while lower-performing schools receive progressively more prescriptive technical assistance, expectations, and monitoring.

The School Progress Index evaluates schools on a continuous scale based on the variables of Achievement, Growth, Gap Reduction, and College- and Career-Readiness. The indicators are specific to Elementary and Middle schools or High Schools. Each indicator is comprised of specific measures for Elementary and Middle schools or High Schools.

Summary of School Progress Index Indicators and Measures

SPI is compensatory so that a low value on one indicator can be balanced by a high value on another indicator. Each of the indicators comprising the Index are differentially weighted based on their importance in assessing overall school progress.

The Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) for each component of the Index are based on a trajectory toward the goal, the time by which each individual school is expected to reduce its percent of students that are non-proficient by half for Achievement, reduce its students not showing Growth by half, reduce the gap between the lowest and highest performing subgroups by half, and reduce the number of students that are not completing the goals for College- and Career-Readiness by half.

The AMOs for each component of the Index are based on a 50% reduction of students not meeting the indicator. AMOs are individually determined based on the school and indicator.

The School Progress Index results in a Strand classification of 1 (highest) to 5 (lowest) which in turn helps identify schools for intervention, supports, and recognition of schools achieving at high levels or making exceptional progress.

More about the School Progress Index

Definitions

School Progress Index (SPI)

The School Progress Index is a continuous scale that measures Achievement, Gaps, Student Growth (at the elementary level) and Achievement, Gaps, and College- and Career-Readiness (at the high school level) starting at 0 for which a 1.0 value means meeting the target.

SPI Indicator: Achievement

Achievement represents the acquisition of the skills and knowledge students have acquired.

The Achievement Indicator represents the school’s performance for “all students” on the MSA, Mod-MSA, Alt-MSA, and HSA in meeting Mathematics, Reading, and Science proficient and advanced levels relative to the school’s targets.

SPI Indicator: Gap Reduction

Gap Reduction represents a decrease in the difference between the highest-achieving subgroup and the lowest-achieving subgroup by content area.

The Gap Indicator represents the difference between the highest and lowest performing subgroups within the following measured areas:

  • Mathematics Proficiency (Mathematics MSA, Algebra/Data Analysis HSA)
  • English/Language Arts Proficiency (Reading MSA, English HSA)
  • Science Proficiency (Science MSA, Biology HSA)
  • Five-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate
  • Four-Year Adjusted Cohort Dropout Rate
SPI Indicator: Growth

Growth represents a student’s progress from one year to the next.

The Growth Indicator represents all students’ growth within an elementary or middle school for the following measures:

  • Mathematics Proficiency (Mathematics MSA)
  • English/Language Arts Proficiency (Reading MSA)
SPI Indicator: College- and Career-Readiness

College- and Career-Readiness represent a combination of measures that ensure students are college and career ready upon graduation.

College- and Career-Readiness consist of the 5-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate and College and Career Preparation (CCP).

CCP is a measurement of a student's success in one of the following areas: Advance Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate Program; Career and Technology Education (CTE) Concentrators; or College Enrollment. Students who have exited high school with a Maryland State High School Diploma are counted as being successful for CCP when the student achieves at least one of the following:

  • AP: Earned a score of 3 or greater on an (AP) exam or IB: Earned a score of 4 or greater on an IB exam;
  • CTE Concentrators: Attained advanced standing (enrolled in the third course of the program) in a State-approved Career and Technology Education program of study; or
  • College Enrollment: Subsequently entered a post-secondary institution within 16 months of high school graduation.
Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) for Achievement Indicator

AMOs for Reading, Mathematics, and Science are set in annual equal increments toward a 50% reduction in the percentage of students in the “all students” group who are not proficient by 2017. The goal for Achievement is 100 percent proficiency. Proficiency rates from assessments administered in the 2010–2011 school year are used for the baseline year.

Achievement AMOs are calculated using the AMO Calculation by dividing the number of advanced and proficient students by the total number of students eligible to take the assessments. If the school's baseline Proficiency Percent for any content is extraordinarily high (90 percent or higher), then the Local Education Agency (LEA) level AMO or State level AMO (lowest of the two) will be substituted for the School AMO.

Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) for Gap Reduction Indicator

Gap Reduction represents a decrease in the difference between the highest-achieving subgroup and the lowest-achieving subgroup by content area.

Reading, Mathematics, and Science Gap Reduction
AMOs for Reading, Mathematics, and Science Gap Reduction are set in annual equal reductions toward a 50% reduction in the difference between the highest-achieving subgroup and the lowest-achieving subgroup by 2017. The goal for Reading, Mathematics, and Science Gap Reduction is 0 percent difference between the highest and lowest performing subgroups.

Five-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate Gap Reduction
AMOs for Five-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate Gap Reduction are set in annual equal reductions toward a 50% reduction in the difference between the highest-achieving subgroup and the lowest-achieving subgroup by 2020. The goal for Graduation Rate Gap Reduction is 5 percent difference between the highest and lowest performing subgroups.

Four-Year Adjusted Cohort Dropout Rate Gap Reduction
AMOs for Four-Year Adjusted Cohort Dropout Rate Gap Reduction are set in annual equal reductions toward a 50% reduction in the difference between the highest-achieving subgroup and the lowest-achieving subgroup by 2020. The goal for Dropout Rate Gap Reduction is 5 percent difference between the highest and lowest performing subgroups.

Gap Reduction AMOs are determined by calculating Proficiency Rates for all subgroups within a school for each content area. The highest and lowest performing subgroups for the baseline school year are determined. The difference between the highest and lowest subgroups is the Overall Needed Reduction which can be used in the calculation above to determine the AMO targets.

The targets are calculated separately by content within a school. When a school's baseline target for any of the contents is extraordinarily low (5 percent or less), then the LEA level AMO or State level AMO (highest of the two) will be substituted for the School group.

For Gap Reduction, larger values indicate less desirable performance. In order to provide continuity in comparisons between measures, the inverse is used in calculating gap reduction. The inverse is 1 minus the current year’s gap.

Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) for Growth Indicator

The Growth targets are on a trajectory toward 2017, the time by which each individual school is expected to reduce by half its percent of students not showing Growth. Targets are calculated for both Mathematics and English/Language Arts. For the baseline year a Growth Rate is calculated by comparing a student's performance in the current year and prior year and then dividing the sum of all students whose performance was equal to or better than the previous year by the total number of students. When a school's baseline target for either content is extraordinarily high (in this case 95 percent or higher), then the LEA level target or State level target (lowest of the two) will be used. The goal for the Growth Rate is 100 percent.

All Students Base Yr + (((1 - ((1 - All Students Base Yr) / 2)) - All Students Base Yr) / 6)

Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) for College- and Career-Readiness Indicator

The College- and Career-Readiness targets are calculated for the 5-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate and College and Career Preparation (CCP). The 5-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate targets are on a trajectory toward 2020, the time by which each individual school is expected to reduce its rate of non-graduating students by half. The CCP targets are on a trajectory toward 2017, the time by which each individual school is expected to reduce its percent of students that are not completing the CCP goals by half. CCP is a measurement of a student's success in one of the following areas: Advance Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB), Career and Technology Education (CTE) Concentrators, and College Enrollment within 16 months of high school graduation. When a school's baseline target is extraordinarily high (90 percent or higher for the 5-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate and 95 percent or higher for CCP), then the LEA level target or State level target (lowest of the two) will be used. The goal for the 5-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate is 95 percent; the goal for CCP is 100 percent.

5-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate:
All Students Base Yr + (((.95 - ((.95 - All Students Base Yr) / 2)) - All Students Base Yr) / 9)

CCP:
All Students Base Yr + (((1 - ((1 - All Students Base Yr) / 2)) - All Students Base Yr) / 6)

Strands

The School Progress Index (SPI) and the school’s result on each of the Indicators of the Index will give the school a very clear picture of their progress to meeting targets. Once the School Progress Index is calculated (with values of 0 to 1 or greater), the scores will be broken into five strands for identifying interventions, support, and recognition to schools. Schools in Strand 1 will be schools meeting all targets and schools not meeting any of their targets will likely be in Strand 5. Although schools will, as always, have very unique profiles, the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) will group the schools based on a measure of the magnitude of the issues these schools face when meeting their targets. This Strand categorization allows MSDE and the Local Education Agency (LEA) to differentiate resources to schools by magnitude of need while precise diagnosis occurs at the school.

PARCC

In 2014 most Maryland public schools had some students who participated in MSA and some students who participated in the PARCC field test. PARCC performance data is not reported because test items are being field tested. Therefore, reading and/or mathematics proficiency data is not reported in the grades for those schools that field tested in those contents. The participation rate data is reported for both MSA and for PARCC on School Progress.

The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) is a consortium of 12 states plus the District of Columbia working together to develop a common set of K-12 assessments in English and math anchored in what it takes to be ready for college and careers. These new K-12 assessments will build a pathway to college and career readiness by the end of high school, mark students’ progress toward this goal from 3rd grade up, and provide teachers with timely information to inform instruction and provide student support. The PARCC assessments will be ready for states to administer during the 2014-15 school year.

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